Commit 7d71a847 authored by root's avatar root
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# Drupal editor configuration normalization
# @see
# This is the top-most .editorconfig file; do not search in parent directories.
root = true
# All files.
end_of_line = LF
indent_style = space
indent_size = 2
charset = utf-8
trim_trailing_whitespace = true
insert_final_newline = true
# Ignore configuration files that may contain sensitive information.
# Ignore paths that contain user-generated content.
\ No newline at end of file
# Apache/PHP/Drupal settings:
# Protect files and directories from prying eyes.
<FilesMatch "\.(engine|inc|info|install|make|module|profile|test|po|sh|.*sql|theme|tpl(\.php)?|xtmpl)(~|\.sw[op]|\.bak|\.orig|\.save)?$|^(\..*|Entries.*|Repository|Root|Tag|Template|composer\.(json|lock))$|^#.*#$|\.php(~|\.sw[op]|\.bak|\.orig\.save)$">
Order allow,deny
# Don't show directory listings for URLs which map to a directory.
Options -Indexes
# Follow symbolic links in this directory.
Options +FollowSymLinks
# Make Drupal handle any 404 errors.
ErrorDocument 404 /index.php
# Set the default handler.
DirectoryIndex index.php index.html index.htm
# Override PHP settings that cannot be changed at runtime. See
# sites/default/default.settings.php and drupal_environment_initialize() in
# includes/ for settings that can be changed at runtime.
# PHP 5, Apache 1 and 2.
<IfModule mod_php5.c>
php_flag magic_quotes_gpc off
php_flag magic_quotes_sybase off
php_flag register_globals off
php_flag session.auto_start off
php_value mbstring.http_input pass
php_value mbstring.http_output pass
php_flag mbstring.encoding_translation off
# Requires mod_expires to be enabled.
<IfModule mod_expires.c>
# Enable expirations.
ExpiresActive On
# Cache all files for 2 weeks after access (A).
ExpiresDefault A1209600
<FilesMatch \.php$>
# Do not allow PHP scripts to be cached unless they explicitly send cache
# headers themselves. Otherwise all scripts would have to overwrite the
# headers set by mod_expires if they want another caching behavior. This may
# fail if an error occurs early in the bootstrap process, and it may cause
# problems if a non-Drupal PHP file is installed in a subdirectory.
ExpiresActive Off
# Various rewrite rules.
<IfModule mod_rewrite.c>
RewriteEngine on
# Set "protossl" to "s" if we were accessed via https://. This is used later
# if you enable "www." stripping or enforcement, in order to ensure that
# you don't bounce between http and https.
RewriteRule ^ - [E=protossl]
RewriteCond %{HTTPS} on
RewriteRule ^ - [E=protossl:s]
# Make sure Authorization HTTP header is available to PHP
# even when running as CGI or FastCGI.
RewriteRule ^ - [E=HTTP_AUTHORIZATION:%{HTTP:Authorization}]
# Block access to "hidden" directories whose names begin with a period. This
# includes directories used by version control systems such as Subversion or
# Git to store control files. Files whose names begin with a period, as well
# as the control files used by CVS, are protected by the FilesMatch directive
# above.
# NOTE: This only works when mod_rewrite is loaded. Without mod_rewrite, it is
# not possible to block access to entire directories from .htaccess, because
# <DirectoryMatch> is not allowed here.
# If you do not have mod_rewrite installed, you should remove these
# directories from your webroot or otherwise protect them from being
# downloaded.
RewriteRule "(^|/)\." - [F]
# If your site can be accessed both with and without the 'www.' prefix, you
# can use one of the following settings to redirect users to your preferred
# URL, either WITH or WITHOUT the 'www.' prefix. Choose ONLY one option:
# To redirect all users to access the site WITH the 'www.' prefix,
# ( will be redirected to
# uncomment the following:
# RewriteCond %{HTTP_HOST} .
# RewriteCond %{HTTP_HOST} !^www\. [NC]
# RewriteRule ^ http%{ENV:protossl}://www.%{HTTP_HOST}%{REQUEST_URI} [L,R=301]
# To redirect all users to access the site WITHOUT the 'www.' prefix,
# ( will be redirected to
# uncomment the following:
# RewriteCond %{HTTP_HOST} ^www\.(.+)$ [NC]
# RewriteRule ^ http%{ENV:protossl}://%1%{REQUEST_URI} [L,R=301]
# Modify the RewriteBase if you are using Drupal in a subdirectory or in a
# VirtualDocumentRoot and the rewrite rules are not working properly.
# For example if your site is at uncomment and
# modify the following line:
# RewriteBase /drupal
# If your site is running in a VirtualDocumentRoot at,
# uncomment the following line:
# RewriteBase /
# Pass all requests not referring directly to files in the filesystem to
# index.php. Clean URLs are handled in drupal_environment_initialize().
RewriteCond %{REQUEST_FILENAME} !-f
RewriteCond %{REQUEST_FILENAME} !-d
RewriteCond %{REQUEST_URI} !=/favicon.ico
RewriteRule ^ index.php [L]
# Rules to correctly serve gzip compressed CSS and JS files.
# Requires both mod_rewrite and mod_headers to be enabled.
<IfModule mod_headers.c>
# Serve gzip compressed CSS files if they exist and the client accepts gzip.
RewriteCond %{HTTP:Accept-encoding} gzip
RewriteCond %{REQUEST_FILENAME}\.gz -s
RewriteRule ^(.*)\.css $1\.css\.gz [QSA]
# Serve gzip compressed JS files if they exist and the client accepts gzip.
RewriteCond %{HTTP:Accept-encoding} gzip
RewriteCond %{REQUEST_FILENAME}\.gz -s
RewriteRule ^(.*)\.js $1\.js\.gz [QSA]
# Serve correct content types, and prevent mod_deflate double gzip.
RewriteRule \.css\.gz$ - [T=text/css,E=no-gzip:1]
RewriteRule \.js\.gz$ - [T=text/javascript,E=no-gzip:1]
<FilesMatch "(\.js\.gz|\.css\.gz)$">
# Serve correct encoding type.
Header set Content-Encoding gzip
# Force proxies to cache gzipped & non-gzipped css/js files separately.
Header append Vary Accept-Encoding
# Add headers to all responses.
<IfModule mod_headers.c>
# Disable content sniffing, since it's an attack vector.
Header always set X-Content-Type-Options nosniff
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All Drupal code is Copyright 2001 - 2013 by the original authors.
This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or (at
your option) any later version.
This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but
WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY
or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU General Public License
for more details.
You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
along with this program as the file LICENSE.txt; if not, please see
Drupal is a registered trademark of Dries Buytaert.
Drupal includes works under other copyright notices and distributed
according to the terms of the GNU General Public License or a compatible
license, including:
Farbtastic - Copyright (c) 2010 Matt Farina
jQuery - Copyright (c) 2010 John Resig
jQuery BBQ - Copyright (c) 2010 "Cowboy" Ben Alman
jQuery Cookie - Copyright (c) 2006 Klaus Hartl
jQuery Form - Copyright (c) 2010 Mike Alsup
jQuery Once - Copyright (c) 2009 Konstantin K�fer
jQuery UI - Copyright (c) 2010 by the original authors
Sizzle.js - Copyright (c) 2010 The Dojo Foundation (
ArchiveTar - Copyright (c) 1997 - 2008 Vincent Blavet
This step is only necessary if you don't already have a database set up (e.g.,
by your host). In the following examples, 'username' is an example MySQL user
which has the CREATE and GRANT privileges. Use the appropriate user name for
your system.
First, you must create a new database for your Drupal site (here, 'databasename'
is the name of the new database):
mysqladmin -u username -p create databasename
MySQL will prompt for the 'username' database password and then create the
initial database files. Next you must log in and set the access database rights:
mysql -u username -p
Again, you will be asked for the 'username' database password. At the MySQL
prompt, enter the following command:
TO 'username'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY 'password';
'databasename' is the name of your database
'username' is the username of your MySQL account
'localhost' is the web server host where Drupal is installed
'password' is the password required for that username
Note: Unless the database user/host combination for your Drupal installation
has all of the privileges listed above (except possibly CREATE TEMPORARY TABLES,
which is currently only used by Drupal core automated tests and some
contributed modules), you will not be able to install or run Drupal.
If successful, MySQL will reply with:
Query OK, 0 rows affected
If the InnoDB storage engine is available, it will be used for all database
tables. InnoDB provides features over MyISAM such as transaction support,
row-level locks, and consistent non-locking reads.
Note that the database must be created with UTF-8 (Unicode) encoding.
This step is only necessary if you don't already have a user set up (e.g., by
your host), or want to create a new user for use with Drupal only. The
following command creates a new user named 'username' and asks for a password
for that user:
createuser --pwprompt --encrypted --no-createrole --no-createdb username
If there are no errors, then the command was successful.
This step is only necessary if you don't already have a database set up
(e.g., by your host) or want to create a new database for use with Drupal
only. The following command creates a new database named 'databasename',
which is owned by the previously created 'username':
createdb --encoding=UTF8 --owner=username databasename
If there are no errors, then the command was successful.
3. CREATE SCHEMA OR SCHEMAS (Optional advanced step)
Drupal will run across different schemas within your database if you so wish.
By default, Drupal runs inside the 'public' schema but you can use $db_prefix
inside settings.php to define a schema for Drupal to run inside of, or
specify tables that are shared inside of a separate schema. Drupal will not
create schemas for you. In fact, the user that Drupal runs as should not be
allowed to do this. You'll need to execute the SQL below as a superuser,
replace 'username' with the username that Drupal uses to connect to
PostgreSQL, and replace 'schema_name' with a schema name you wish to use,
such as 'shared':
Do this for as many schemas as you need. See default.settings.php for
instructions on how to set which tables use which schemas.
To use SQLite with your Drupal installation, the following requirements must be
met: Server has PHP 5.2 or later with PDO, and the PDO SQLite driver must be
The Drupal installer will create the SQLite database for you. The only
requirement is that the installer must have write permissions to the directory
where the database file resides. This directory (not just the database file) also
has to remain writeable by the web server going forward for SQLite to continue to
be able to operate.
On the "Database configuration" form in the "Database file" field, you must
supply the exact path to where you wish your database file to reside. It is
strongly suggested that you choose a path that is outside of the webroot, yet
ensure that the directory is writeable by the web server.
If you must place your database file in your webroot, you could try using the
following in your "Database file" field:
Note: The .ht in the name will tell Apache to prevent the database from being
downloaded. Please check that the file is, indeed, protected by your webserver.
If not, please consult the documentation of your webserver on how to protect a
file from downloading.
* Requirements and notes
* Optional server requirements
* Installation
* Building and customizing your site
* Multisite configuration
* More information
Drupal requires:
- A web server. Apache (version 2.0 or greater) is recommended.
- PHP 5.2.4 (or greater) (
- One of the following databases:
- MySQL 5.0.15 (or greater) (
- MariaDB 5.1.44 (or greater) ( MariaDB is a fully
compatible drop-in replacement for MySQL.
- Percona Server 5.1.70 (or greater) ( Percona
Server is a backwards-compatible replacement for MySQL.
- PostgreSQL 8.3 (or greater) (
- SQLite 3.3.7 (or greater) (
For more detailed information about Drupal requirements, including a list of
PHP extensions and configurations that are required, see "System requirements"
( in the online documentation.
For detailed information on how to configure a test server environment using a
variety of operating systems and web servers, see "Local server setup"
( in the online documentation.
Note that all directories mentioned in this document are always relative to the
directory of your Drupal installation, and commands are meant to be run from
this directory (except for the initial commands that create that directory).
- If you want to use Drupal's "Clean URLs" feature on an Apache web server, you
will need the mod_rewrite module and the ability to use local .htaccess
files. For Clean URLs support on IIS, see "Clean URLs with IIS"
( in the online documentation.
- If you plan to use XML-based services such as RSS aggregation, you will need
PHP's XML extension. This extension is enabled by default on most PHP
- To serve gzip compressed CSS and JS files on an Apache web server, you will
need the mod_headers module and the ability to use local .htaccess files.
- Some Drupal functionality (e.g., checking whether Drupal and contributed
modules need updates, RSS aggregation, etc.) require that the web server be
able to go out to the web and download information. If you want to use this
functionality, you need to verify that your hosting provider or server
configuration allows the web server to initiate outbound connections. Most web
hosting setups allow this.
1. Download and extract Drupal.
You can obtain the latest Drupal release from -- the files
are available in .tar.gz and .zip formats and can be extracted using most
compression tools.
To download and extract the files, on a typical Unix/Linux command line, use
the following commands (assuming you want version x.y of Drupal in .tar.gz
tar -zxvf drupal-x.y.tar.gz
This will create a new directory drupal-x.y/ containing all Drupal files and
directories. Then, to move the contents of that directory into a directory
within your web server's document root or your public HTML directory,
continue with this command:
mv drupal-x.y/* drupal-x.y/.htaccess /path/to/your/installation
2. Optionally, download a translation.
By default, Drupal is installed in English, and further languages may be
installed later. If you prefer to install Drupal in another language
- Download a translation file for the correct Drupal version and language
from the translation server:
- Place the file into your installation profile's translations directory.
For instance, if you are using the Standard installation profile,
move the .po file into the directory:
For detailed instructions, visit
3. Create the Drupal database.
Because Drupal stores all site information in a database, you must create
this database in order to install Drupal, and grant Drupal certain database
privileges (such as the ability to create tables). For details, consult
INSTALL.mysql.txt, INSTALL.pgsql.txt, or INSTALL.sqlite.txt. You may also
need to consult your web hosting provider for instructions specific to your
web host.
Take note of the username, password, database name, and hostname as you
create the database. You will enter this information during the install.
4. Run the install script.
To run the install script, point your browser to the base URL of your
website (e.g.,
You will be guided through several screens to set up the database, add the
site maintenance account (the first user, also known as user/1), and provide
basic web site settings.
During installation, several files and directories need to be created, which
the install script will try to do automatically. However, on some hosting
environments, manual steps are required, and the install script will tell
you that it cannot proceed until you fix certain issues. This is normal and
does not indicate a problem with your server.
The most common steps you may need to perform are:
a. Missing files directory.
The install script will attempt to create a file storage directory in
the default location at sites/default/files (the location of the files
directory may be changed after Drupal is installed).
If auto-creation fails, you can make it work by changing permissions on
the sites/default directory so that the web server can create the files
directory within it for you. (If you are creating a multisite
installation, substitute the correct sites directory for sites/default;
see the Multisite Configuration section of this file, below.)
For example, on a Unix/Linux command line, you can grant everyone
(including the web server) permission to write to the sites/default
directory with this command:
chmod a+w sites/default
Be sure to set the permissions back after the installation is finished!
Sample command:
chmod go-w sites/default
Alternatively, instead of allowing the web server to create the files
directory for you as described above, you can create it yourself. Sample
commands from a Unix/Linux command line:
mkdir sites/default/files
chmod a+w sites/default/files
b. Missing settings file.
Drupal will try to automatically create a settings.php configuration file,
which is normally in the directory sites/default (to avoid problems when
upgrading, Drupal is not packaged with this file). If auto-creation fails,
you will need to create this file yourself, using the file
sites/default/default.settings.php as a template.
For example, on a Unix/Linux command line, you can make a copy of the
default.settings.php file with the command:
cp sites/default/default.settings.php sites/default/settings.php
Next, grant write privileges to the file to everyone (including the web
server) with the command:
chmod a+w sites/default/settings.php
Be sure to set the permissions back after the installation is finished!
Sample command:
chmod go-w sites/default/settings.php
c. Write permissions after install.
The install script will attempt to write-protect the settings.php file and
the sites/default directory after saving your configuration. If this
fails, you will be notified, and you can do it manually. Sample commands
from a Unix/Linux command line:
chmod go-w sites/default/settings.php
chmod go-w sites/default
5. Verify that the site is working.
When the install script finishes, you will be logged in with the site
maintenance account on a "Welcome" page. If the default Drupal theme is not
displaying properly and links on the page result in "Page Not Found" errors,
you may be experiencing problems with clean URLs. Visit to troubleshoot.
6. Change file system storage settings (optional).
The files directory created in step 4 is the default file system path used to
store all uploaded files, as well as some temporary files created by
Drupal. After installation, you can modify the file system path to store
uploaded files in a different location.
It is not necessary to modify this path, but you may wish to change it if:
- Your site runs multiple Drupal installations from a single codebase (modify
the file system path of each installation to a different directory so that
uploads do not overlap between installations).
- Your site runs on a number of web servers behind a load balancer or reverse
proxy (modify the file system path on each server to point to a shared file
- You want to restrict access to uploaded files.
To modify the file system path:
a. Ensure that the new location for the path exists and is writable by the
web server. For example, to create a new directory named uploads and grant
write permissions, use the following commands on a Unix/Linux command
mkdir uploads
chmod a+w uploads
b. Navigate to Administration > Configuration > Media > File system, and
enter the desired path. Note that if you want to use private file storage,
you need to first enter the path for private files and save the
configuration, and then change the "Default download method" setting and
save again.
Changing the file system path after files have been uploaded may cause
unexpected problems on an existing site. If you modify the file system path
on an existing site, remember to copy all files from the original location
to the new location.
7. Revoke documentation file permissions (optional).
Some administrators suggest making the documentation files, especially
CHANGELOG.txt, non-readable so that the exact version of Drupal you are
running is slightly more difficult to determine. If you wish to implement
this optional security measure, from a Unix/Linux command line you can use
the following command:
chmod a-r CHANGELOG.txt
Note that the example only affects CHANGELOG.txt. To completely hide all
documentation files from public view, repeat this command for each of the
Drupal documentation files in the installation directory, substituting the
name of each file for CHANGELOG.txt in the example.
For more information on setting file permissions, see "Modifying Linux,
Unix, and Mac file permissions" ( or
"Modifying Windows file permissions" ( in the online documentation.
8. Set up independent "cron" maintenance jobs.
Many Drupal modules have tasks that must be run periodically, including the
Search module (building and updating the index used for keyword searching),
the Aggregator module (retrieving feeds from other sites), and the System
module (performing routine maintenance and pruning of database tables). These
tasks are known as "cron maintenance tasks", named after the Unix/Linux
"cron" utility.
When you install Drupal, its built-in cron feature is enabled, which
automatically runs the cron tasks periodically, triggered by people visiting
pages of your site. You can configure the built-in cron feature by navigating
to Administration > Configuration > System > Cron.
It is also possible to run the cron tasks independent of site visits; this is
recommended for most sites. To do this, you will need to set up an automated
process to visit the page cron.php on your site, which executes the cron
The URL of the cron.php page requires a "cron key" to protect against
unauthorized access. Your site's cron key is automatically generated during
installation and is specific to your site. The full URL of the page, with the
cron key, is available in the "Cron maintenance tasks" section of the Status
report page at Administration > Reports > Status report.
As an example for how to set up this automated process, you can use the
crontab utility on Unix/Linux systems. The following crontab line uses the
wget command to visit the cron.php page, and runs each hour, on the hour:
0 * * * * wget -O - -q -t 1
Replace the text "" in the
example with the full URL displayed under "Cron maintenance tasks" on the
"Status report" page.
More information about cron maintenance tasks is available at, and sample cron shell scripts can be found in the
scripts/ directory. (Note that these scripts must be customized like the
above example, to add your site-specific cron key and domain name.)
A new installation of Drupal defaults to a very basic configuration. To extend
your site, you use "modules" and "themes". A module is a plugin that adds
functionality to Drupal, while a theme changes the look of your site. The core
of Drupal provides several optional modules and themes, and you can download
more at and