Commit 4e3d685c authored by Olivier's avatar Olivier

Chapters 1 & 2: Language & typo fixes

With thanks to students who reported the issues
parent df9a7a18
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......@@ -211,9 +211,9 @@
\subsection{Speed of sound}
\label{ch_speed_sound_compressibility}
An important property of fluids is the speed at which information (in particular, pressure changes due to the movement of an object) can travel within the fluid. This is equal to the average speed of molecules within the fluid, and it is called the \vocab{speed of sound}, noted~$c$.
An important property of fluids is the speed at which pressure changes can travel within the fluid (these pressure changes may for example be caused by the movement of an object). This speed is equal to the average speed of molecules within the fluid, and it is called the \vocab{speed of sound}, noted~$c$.
It is important to quantify how fast the fluid is flowing relative to e speed of sound. For this, we define the \vocab{Mach number} $\ma$ as the ratio of the local fluid speed~$V$ to the local speed of sound~$c$:
In fluid dynamics, we often quantify how fast the fluid is flowing relative to the speed of sound. For this, we define the \vocab{Mach number} $\ma$ as the ratio of the local fluid speed~$V$ to the local speed of sound~$c$:
\begin{equation}
\ma \equiv \frac{V}{c} \label{eq_def_ma}
\end{equation}
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\atstartofexercises
......@@ -33,7 +33,7 @@
\label{fig_pressure_distribution_plate}
\end{figure}
\begin{enumerate}
\item What is the pressure force exerted on the left side of the plate?
\item What is the pressure force (i.e. the force resulting from the pressure) exerted on the left side of the plate?
\end{enumerate}
On the right side of the plate, the water exerts a pressure which is not uniform: it increases with depth. The relation, expressed in \si{pascals}, is:
......@@ -82,7 +82,7 @@
%homemade
\label{exo_power_lost_to_drag}
A truck moves with constant speed $\vec V$ on a road, with $V = \SI{100}{\kilo\metre\per\hour}$. Because it experiences cross-wind, it is subjected to a drag $\vec F_D$ with $F_D = \SI{5}{\kilo\newton}$ at an angle $\theta = \SI{20}{\degree}$, as shown in \cref{fig_truck_drag_power}.
A truck moves with constant speed $\vec V$ on a road, with $V = \SI{100}{\kilo\metre\per\hour}$. Because it experiences cross-wind, it is subjected to an aerodynamic force $\vec F_D$ with $F_D = \SI{5}{\kilo\newton}$ at an angle $\theta = \SI{20}{\degree}$, as shown in \cref{fig_truck_drag_power}.
\begin{figure}
\begin{center}
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......@@ -128,7 +128,7 @@ Balance of energy in a considered volume with steady flow:
At the outlet, the hot gases have pressure \SI{24,5}{\bar} and temperature \SI{1550}{\degreeCelsius}.
We consider that the air and gas keep the same thermodynamic properties throughout ($c_\text{p} = \SI{1050}{\joule\per\kilogram}$)
We consider that the air and gas have the same thermodynamic properties throughout the combustor ($c_\text{v} = \SI{718}{\joule\per\kilogram\per\kelvin}$, $R_\air = \SI{287}{\joule\per\kilogram\per\kelvin}$).
\begin{enumerate}
\item What is the volume flow at inlet and at outlet?
......@@ -153,7 +153,7 @@ Balance of energy in a considered volume with steady flow:
\end{figure}
\begin{enumerate}
\item What is the net force exerted on the water by the wall?
\item What is the net force exerted on the water by the wall?
\item What is the net force exerted on the wall by the water?
\end{enumerate}
Now, the wall moves longitudinally in the same direction as the water jet, with a speed $V_\text{wall} = \SI{15}{\metre\per\second}$.\\
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