Commit 14fc72b9 authored by Olivier's avatar Olivier

Sprinkling of references in lecture note text (long overdue)

parent ae688a36
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\clearpage
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\section{CFD: the Navier-Stokes equations in practice}
\coveredin{Versteeg \& Malalasekera \cite{versteegetal2007}}
\subsection{Principle}
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......@@ -259,6 +259,7 @@
\end{itemize}
\subsection{Characteristics of turbulent flow}
\coveredin{Tennekes \& Lumley \cite{tennekesetal1972}}
Turbulence is a complex topic which is still not fully described analytically today. Although it may display steadiness when time-averaged, a turbulent flow is highly three-dimensional, unsteady, and chaotic in the sense that the description of velocity fields is carried out with statistical, instead of analytic, methods.
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&=& \left(\frac{\rho_A}{\rho_B} \frac{S_\A}{S_\B} \frac{V_\A^2}{V_\B^2} \right) F_\text{D B}
\end{IEEEeqnarray*}
It should be noted that even when perfect dynamic similarity is achieved, fluid-induced forces do not scale with other types of forces. For example, if the length of model~B is 1/10th that of car~A, then $S_\B = \num{0,1}^2 S_\A$ and at identical density and velocity, we would have $F_\text{D B} = \num{0,1}^2 F_\text{D A}$. Nevertheless, the \emph{weight} $F_\text{W B}$ of model~B would not be one hundredth of the weight of car~A. If the same materials were used to produce the model, weight would stay proportional to \emph{volume}, not surface, and we would have $F_\text{W B} = \num{0,1}^3 F_\text{W A}$. This has important consequences when weight has to be balanced by flow-induced forces. It is also the reason why large birds such as condors or swans do not look like, and cannot fly as slowly as mosquitoes and bugs!
It should be noted that even when perfect dynamic similarity is achieved, fluid-induced forces do not scale with other types of forces. For example, if the length of model~B is 1/10th that of car~A, then $S_\B = \num{0,1}^2 S_\A$ and at identical density and velocity, we would have $F_\text{D B} = \num{0,1}^2 F_\text{D A}$. Nevertheless, the \emph{weight} $F_\text{W B}$ of model~B would not be one hundredth of the weight of car~A. If the same materials were used to produce the model, weight would stay proportional to \emph{volume}, not surface, and we would have $F_\text{W B} = \num{0,1}^3 F_\text{W A}$. This has important consequences when weight has to be balanced by flow-induced forces. It is also the reason why large birds such as condors or swans do not look like, and cannot fly as slowly as mosquitoes and bugs!\footnote{These ideas are beautifully and smartly explored in Tennekes \cite{tennekes1992, tennekes2009}.}
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......@@ -225,6 +225,7 @@
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\section{Flow parameters as force ratios}
\coveredin{Massey \cite{massey1983}}
Instead of the above mathematical approach, the concept of flow parameter can be approached by \emph{comparing forces} in fluid flows.
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......@@ -165,3 +165,32 @@
language= {english},
}
@book{versteegetal2007,
title= {An introduction to computational fluid dynamics: the finite volume method},
author= {Versteeg, Henk Kaarle and Malalasekera, Weeratunge},
edition= 2,
year= {2007},
publisher= {Pearson Education},
language= {english},
isbn= {9780131274983}
}
@book{massey1983,
title= {Mechanics of fluids},
author= {Massey, Bernard Stanford},
year= {1983},
edition= 5,
publisher= {Van Nostrand Reinhold},
language= {english},
isbn= {0442305524},
}
@book{tennekesetal1972,
title= {A first course in turbulence},
author= {Tennekes, Hendrik and Lumley, John Leask},
year= {1972},
publisher= {MIT press},
language= {english},
isbn= {978-0262200196},
}
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