Commit 9d9fdeb2 authored by arpinux's avatar arpinux

minor fix & sync fr/en

parent 86a47460
Pipeline #18098 passed with stages
in 1 minute and 4 seconds
## Sources de construction pour [the beginner's handbook](https://lescahiersdudebutant.fr/index-en.html)
Ce dépôt intègre les sources pour construire les version anglaises de :
Ce dépôt intègre les sources pour construire :
- [la documentation en ligne](https://dflinux.frama.io/thebeginnershandbook/)
- [la version PDF](https://framagit.org/dflinux/thebeginnershandbook/raw/master/docs/the_beginners_handbook.pdf)
- [la version PDF imprimable](https://framagit.org/dflinux/thebeginnershandbook/raw/master/docs/the_beginners_handbook_print.pdf) (en noir et blanc)
- [la version ePUB](https://framagit.org/dflinux/thebeginnershandbook/raw/master/docs/the_beginners_handbook.epub)
- [la verison HTML-standalone](https://framagit.org/dflinux/thebeginnershandbook/raw/master/docs/the_beginners_handbook.html.tar.gz)
- [le paquet debian](https://framagit.org/dflinux/thebeginnershandbook/tree/master/docs/paquet_debian/)
### Contents
- mkdocs.yml : fichier de configuration export pour mkdocs
- .gitlab-ci.yml : fichier de configuration pour la création du site en ligne via `pages`
- docs/css/
- cahiers.css : feuille de style pour mkdocs
- epub.css : feuille de style pour l'export ePUB
- les_cahiers_du_débutant.png : couverture pour l'ePUB
- docs/img/ : images pour la documentation en 96dpi
- docs/paquet_debian/ : dossier de création pour le paquet debian.
- docs/intro[pub].md : première page pour les version PDF et ePUB
- docs/foo.md : sources de la documentation
- docs/foo.phatch : actionlists pour phatch (optimisation des images)
- docs/pandoc-lcdd.txt : yaml block pour pandoc
- docs/pandoc-tpl.foo : modèles pour l'export pandoc PDF et HTML
- docs/mklcdd : générer toutes les versions (penser à modifier la date de version pour le paquet debian)
- docs/.mklcdd-foo : scripts autonomes pour chaque version
### Depends
- mkdocs
- pandoc
- ps2pdf
- exiftool
- equivs
#!/bin/sh
# exporter les cahiers du débutant en .deb
##########################################
echo "\nexport en .deb avec le PDF\n"
cp the_beginners_handbook.pdf paquet_debian/src/
cd paquet_debian/src/
rm -f *.deb
equivs-build thebeginnershandbook
rm the_beginners_handbook.pdf
mv *.deb ../
exit 0
......@@ -9,8 +9,8 @@ MANEPUB="the_beginners_handbook.epub"
if test -f $LOG; then rm $LOG; fi
if test -f $MANEPUB; then rm $MANEPUB; fi
# make pdf
echo "export en ePub depuis les sources MD"
# make epub
echo "\nexport en ePub depuis les sources MD\n"
pandoc \
--verbose \
-S --normalize \
......@@ -40,11 +40,11 @@ pandoc \
# test du epub
if test -f $MANEPUB; then
echo "\n$MANEPUB généré avec succès\n"
echo "nettoyage"
echo "\nnettoyage\n"
rm $LOG
exit 0
else
echo "ERROR: $MANEPUB non généré > vérifiez le $LOG"
echo "\nERROR: $MANEPUB non généré > vérifiez le $LOG\n"
exit 1
fi
......@@ -15,7 +15,7 @@ if test -f $MANUEL; then rm $MANUEL; fi
if test -f $MANPRINT; then rm $MANPRINT; fi
# make pdf
echo "export en PDF depuis les sources MD"
echo "\nexport en PDF depuis les sources MD\n"
pandoc \
--verbose \
-s -S --normalize \
......@@ -58,11 +58,11 @@ if test -f $MANHD; then
exiftool -Title="The beginner's handbook" -Author="3hg team © WTFPL" \
-Subject="Debian manual for very beginners" -overwrite_original $MANUEL
# clean
echo "nettoyage"
echo "\nnettoyage\n"
rm $MANHD $LOG
exit 0
else
echo "ERROR: \"$MANUEL\" & \"$MANPRINT\" non générés > vérifiez le $LOG"
echo "\nERROR: \"$MANUEL\" & \"$MANPRINT\" non générés > vérifiez le $LOG\n"
exit 1
fi
#!/bin/sh
# exporter the beginner's handbook en HTML
##########################################
......@@ -9,8 +10,8 @@ MANWEB="the_beginners_handbook.html"
if test -f $LOG; then rm $LOG; fi
if test -f $MANWEB; then rm $MANWEB; fi
# make pdf
echo "export en HTML depuis les sources MD"
# make html-standalone
echo "\nexport en HTML depuis les sources MD\n"
pandoc \
--verbose \
-s -S --normalize \
......@@ -45,12 +46,12 @@ if test -f $MANWEB; then
cp -a img/ $MANTMP/
cp $MANWEB $MANTMP/
tar cvzf $MANWEB.tar.gz $MANTMP/
echo "nettoyage"
echo "\nnettoyage\n"
rm $LOG $MANWEB
rm -Rf $MANTMP/
exit 0
else
echo "ERROR: $MANWEB non généré > vérifiez le $LOG"
echo "\nERROR: $MANWEB non généré > vérifiez le $LOG\n"
exit 1
fi
{'actions': [{'fields': {'Canvas Height': u'25 px',
'Canvas Width': u'25 px',
'Constrain Proportions': 'yes',
'Resample Image': 'automatic',
'Resolution': u'96',
'Scale Down Only': u'yes',
'__enabled__': 'yes'},
'label': 'Scale'},
{'fields': {'As': u'<type>',
'File Name': u'<filename>',
'In': u'<desktop>/phatch/<subfolder>',
'JPEG Quality': u'90',
'JPEG Size Maximum': '0 kb',
'JPEG Size Tolerance': '10 kb',
'Metadata': u'no',
'PNG Optimize': u'yes',
'Resolution': u'96',
'Show Type Options': u'yes',
'TIFF Compression': u'<compression>',
'__enabled__': 'yes'},
'label': 'Save'}],
'description': '',
'version': '0.2.7'}
\ No newline at end of file
docs/img/bios-uefi-save.png

59.8 KB | W: | H:

docs/img/bios-uefi-save.png

60.2 KB | W: | H:

docs/img/bios-uefi-save.png
docs/img/bios-uefi-save.png
docs/img/bios-uefi-save.png
docs/img/bios-uefi-save.png
  • 2-up
  • Swipe
  • Onion skin
docs/img/bootmenu1.png

22.3 KB | W: | H:

docs/img/bootmenu1.png

45.3 KB | W: | H:

docs/img/bootmenu1.png
docs/img/bootmenu1.png
docs/img/bootmenu1.png
docs/img/bootmenu1.png
  • 2-up
  • Swipe
  • Onion skin
docs/img/bootmenu3.png

60.5 KB | W: | H:

docs/img/bootmenu3.png

141 KB | W: | H:

docs/img/bootmenu3.png
docs/img/bootmenu3.png
docs/img/bootmenu3.png
docs/img/bootmenu3.png
  • 2-up
  • Swipe
  • Onion skin
docs/img/bouton3hg.gif

1.36 KB | W: | H:

docs/img/bouton3hg.gif

209 Bytes | W: | H:

docs/img/bouton3hg.gif
docs/img/bouton3hg.gif
docs/img/bouton3hg.gif
docs/img/bouton3hg.gif
  • 2-up
  • Swipe
  • Onion skin
docs/img/logo_debian_txt_big.png

27.3 KB | W: | H:

docs/img/logo_debian_txt_big.png

15.6 KB | W: | H:

docs/img/logo_debian_txt_big.png
docs/img/logo_debian_txt_big.png
docs/img/logo_debian_txt_big.png
docs/img/logo_debian_txt_big.png
  • 2-up
  • Swipe
  • Onion skin
docs/img/secureboot1.png

49.6 KB | W: | H:

docs/img/secureboot1.png

50.4 KB | W: | H:

docs/img/secureboot1.png
docs/img/secureboot1.png
docs/img/secureboot1.png
docs/img/secureboot1.png
  • 2-up
  • Swipe
  • Onion skin
docs/img/secureboot2.png

86 KB | W: | H:

docs/img/secureboot2.png

85.7 KB | W: | H:

docs/img/secureboot2.png
docs/img/secureboot2.png
docs/img/secureboot2.png
docs/img/secureboot2.png
  • 2-up
  • Swipe
  • Onion skin
docs/img/tails_banner.png

4.9 KB | W: | H:

docs/img/tails_banner.png

20.4 KB | W: | H:

docs/img/tails_banner.png
docs/img/tails_banner.png
docs/img/tails_banner.png
docs/img/tails_banner.png
  • 2-up
  • Swipe
  • Onion skin
......@@ -10,11 +10,11 @@
**"The beginner's handbook"** is a simplified manual to install and take-over the Debian system.
You will find in the following pages **the answers to your first questions** concerning the **Debian GNU/Linux** system, its history, how to obtain it, to install it, to take-over it, to configure and administrate it.
You will find in the following pages **the answers to your first questions** concerning the **Debian GNU/Linux** system ![](img/gnulinux-mini.png), its history, how to obtain it, to install it, to take-over it, to configure and administrate it.
You will be able to **go further** and obtain information concerning the privacy protection, the backing up of your data, and the various actors of the Free Software world.
Usually, the manuals begin by teaching you the theoretical basis and the usage of the terminal. This manual takes the very side of the "graphical environment": it is designed to let you start quickly with Debian, screen powered on, fingers on the keyboard and the mouse nearby.
Usually, the manuals begin by teaching you the theoretical basis and the usage of the terminal. This manual takes the very side of the "graphical environment": it is designed to let you start quickly with Debian, screen powered on, fingers on the keyboard and the mouse nearby ![](img/big_smile.png).
**-- The mission of this manual is not to be comprehensive. --**
......@@ -29,7 +29,7 @@ If you need a complete Debian manual, please read the **Debian Administrator Han
Iy depends on the version you are viewing :
- the [HTML version](https://dflinux.frama.io/thebeginnershandbook/) has an effective search field, do not hesitate to enter a word or two,
- the [PDF version](https://framagit.org/dflinux/thebeginnershandbook/raw/master/docs/the_beginners_handbook.pdf) includes a summary *more than* detailed at the end of the guide,
- the [PDF version](https://framagit.org/dflinux/thebeginnershandbook/raw/master/docs/the_beginners_handbook.pdf) includes a summary *more than* detailed and a table of figures at the end of the guide. This version is included in the [debian package](https://framagit.org/dflinux/thebeginnershandbook/raw/master/docs/paquet_debian/),
- the [HTML-archive version](https://framagit.org/dflinux/thebeginnershandbook/raw/master/docs/the_beginners_handbook.html.tar.gz) opens on a single page, which makes it easy to search from your browser using the shortcut [Ctrl]+[f]
- the [ePub version](https://framagit.org/dflinux/lescahiersdudebutant/raw/master/docs/les_cahiers_du_debutant.epub) takes advantage of the detailed table of contents and search functions of your ebook reader.
......
......@@ -5,11 +5,11 @@
**"The beginner's handbook"** is a simplified manual to install and take-over the Debian system.
You will find in the following pages **the answers to your first questions** concerning the **Debian GNU/Linux** system, its history, how to obtain it, to install it, to take-over it, to configure and administrate it.
You will find in the following pages **the answers to your first questions** concerning the **Debian GNU/Linux** system ![](img/gnulinux-mini.png), its history, how to obtain it, to install it, to take-over it, to configure and administrate it.
You will be able to **go further** and obtain information concerning the privacy protection, the backing up of your data, and the various actors of the Free Software world.
Usually, the manuals begin by teaching you the theoretical basis and the usage of the terminal. This manual takes the very side of the "graphical environment": it is designed to let you start quickly with Debian, screen powered on, fingers on the keyboard and the mouse nearby.
Usually, the manuals begin by teaching you the theoretical basis and the usage of the terminal. This manual takes the very side of the "graphical environment": it is designed to let you start quickly with Debian, screen powered on, fingers on the keyboard and the mouse nearby ![](img/big_smile.png).
---
......
......@@ -5,11 +5,11 @@
**"The beginner's handbook"** is a simplified manual to install and take-over the Debian system.
You will find in the following pages **the answers to your first questions** concerning the **Debian GNU/Linux** system, its history, how to obtain it, to install it, to take-over it, to configure and administrate it.
You will find in the following pages **the answers to your first questions** concerning the **Debian GNU/Linux** system ![](img/gnulinux-mini.png), its history, how to obtain it, to install it, to take-over it, to configure and administrate it.
You will be able to **go further** and obtain information concerning the privacy protection, the backing up of your data, and the various actors of the Free Software world.
Usually, the manuals begin by teaching you the theoretical basis and the usage of the terminal. This manual takes the very side of the "graphical environment": it is designed to let you start quickly with Debian, screen powered on, fingers on the keyboard and the mouse nearby.
Usually, the manuals begin by teaching you the theoretical basis and the usage of the terminal. This manual takes the very side of the "graphical environment": it is designed to let you start quickly with Debian, screen powered on, fingers on the keyboard and the mouse nearby ![](img/big_smile.png).
**-- The mission of this manual is not to be comprehensive. --**
......
# Debian? What's that?
# ![debian](img/debian-bouton.png) Debian? What's that?
Distribution, free software, community, packages, source code ... but what is Debian in fact?
![debian](img/debian-scratch.png) Distribution, free software, community, packages, source code ... but what is Debian in fact?
## The Debian GNU/Linux system
**Debian** is an operating system **libre** (as in free speech) and **gratis** (as in free beer).
Debian allows your computer to function and offers you a a full set of **Free Software** for
all the usual practices (surfing the Web, sending emails, playing multimedia files,
doing office kind of tasks), and more ...
doing office kind of tasks), and more ...![](img/smile.png)
This collection of Libre Software comes to a large extend from the
[GNU project](http://www.gnu.org/home.en.html), launched in 1983 by
[Richard M. Stallman](http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Stallman).
The [Linux kernel](http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Linux_kernel) developed by
[Linus Torvalds](http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Linus_Torvalds) came to complete
those software to make **Debian GNU/Linux**.
those software to make **GNU/Linux**.
![GNU & Tux, logos of the GNU projet and the Linux kernel by Péhä CC-BY-SA](img/avatar_tuxgnu_closed-modarp-220.png)
......@@ -24,6 +24,8 @@ which grew up to become a big and well organized community of developers and end
**Debian** is now developed by a thousand of [volunteers](https://www.debian.org/devel/people)
spread [around the world](https://www.debian.org/devel/developers.loc).
![in memory of Ian Murdock by Péhä CC-0](img/ian_murdock_20151230_by_Péhä.png)
So, **Debian** is a *complete set of free software*. A **free software** is defined by
the [4 freedoms](https://www.gnu.org/philosophy/free-sw.en.html): it gives the end users
the freedom in **using**, **studying**, **sharing** and **modifying** that software,
......@@ -31,7 +33,7 @@ without breaking the law. To achieve this, it is necessary for the developer to
the source code and authorize the end-user to exercise its rights granted by a **free license**.
One of the major interests of the free software is that it allows competent people to
audit the program code, to insure notably that **it does only** what it is supposed to do.
So it is additional barrier **to protect your privacy**.
So it is additional barrier **to protect your privacy** ![](img/cool.png).
Debian implements this principle in its [Social Contract](https://www.debian.org/social_contract.en.html),
and particularly in the [Free Software Guidelines](https://www.debian.org/social_contract.en.html#guidelines) according to Debian.
......@@ -64,7 +66,7 @@ a lot in limiting the damages: In case of a viral infection, only the user's
documents are affected. This clear separation of the rights limits also the risks
of error made between the keyboard and the chair. More details on the rights in chapter 3.7.
**The back-up** of you data on a regular basis remains the best insurance
![](img/chevalier.gif) **The back-up** of you data on a regular basis remains the best insurance
to protect them against potential viruses or technical issues,
but also against your own mistakes (chap.9).
......@@ -116,7 +118,7 @@ already solved: most of the forum include a search function by keyword, which wi
help you find out if your problem is already described in there and has a documented solution.
Don't forget that a forum is usually maintained by **volunteers**, not to be confused
with a post-sales customer service organization ;)
with a post-sales customer service organization ![](img/wink.png).
## Few links before moving on
......
# A simplified introduction to computer systems
# ![initiation](img/initiation.png) A simplified introduction to computer systems
**We begin here a scary page...**
......@@ -8,7 +8,7 @@
**But then ... how are we going to make it?**
*Easy: we read the beginner's handbook!*
> *Easy: we read the beginner's handbook!* ![](img/love.gif)
Within a short period of time, computers became an essential tool of the modern life. One issue is that information and education don't follow the technical progress at the same pace, nor the needs of the users.
......@@ -34,13 +34,13 @@ It seems difficult to summarize in few sentences the whole scope of information
- **walk through your family pictures**: your memories in one click, simply using the the image viewers integrated on all the Debian desktop.
- **print documents or images**: Debian uses the CUPS printing server, and its common configuration tool (chap.6.2.2), but you can also use an integrated utility for a printer simplified configuration (chap.6.2.1)
And this is exactly the knowhow you are going to learn with **the beginner's handbook** .
And this is exactly the knowhow you are going to learn with **the beginner's handbook** ![](img/cool.png).
## Test your level of computer skills
Keep in mind that this manual is not cast in stone … Our advices are only suggestions regarding your computer knowledge ...
First of all, you are free !
First of all, you are free [](img/big_smile.png) !
Importantly, be as honest as possible: we are all beginners in one domain or another (personally, I am unable to change the injectors in the carburettor of my car) and it is not a fault. The issue is raising only because computers are taking a large space in our lives, and penalize the newbies. But we are here to change all that!
......@@ -183,7 +183,7 @@ The "non-alphanumeric" keys of the keyboard give you access to extended function
### Keyboard shortcuts
*Why bother?* **Because it's much faster!**
*Why bother?* **Because it's much faster!** ![](img/big_smile.png)
Note that the shortcuts are made by pressing down the keys together, at the same time: to copy a selection, press and hold the [Ctrl] key, then press the [c] key. You can then release both keys, a clone of your selection is stored in the "clipboard" (a special buffer located in the memory of the operating system).
Hereafter a short summary of the most useful **keyboard shortcuts**:
......@@ -225,14 +225,14 @@ If you are not comfortable with simultaneous pressure exercises, you can always
**mouse exercices:**
- http://pbclibrary.org/mousing/mousercise.htm
- http://www.mydigitalliteracy.us/
- [http://pbclibrary.org/mousing/mousercise.htm](http://pbclibrary.org/mousing/mousercise.htm)
- [http://www.mydigitalliteracy.us/](http://www.mydigitalliteracy.us/)
**keyboard exercices:**
- http://play.typeracer.com/
- https://www.typing.com/student/start
- http://www.sense-lang.org/typing/tutor/keyboarding.php
- [http://play.typeracer.com/](http://play.typeracer.com/)
- [https://www.typing.com/student/start](https://www.typing.com/student/start)
- [http://www.sense-lang.org/typing/tutor/keyboarding.php](http://www.sense-lang.org/typing/tutor/keyboarding.php)
## The users
......
# The graphical environment
# ![desktop](img/desktop.png) The graphical environment
**Let's start by looking at the various elements displayed on the screen.**
On this simple image, you can already identify the first elements which are explained below in this handbook:
......@@ -47,7 +47,7 @@ Irrelevant of the type of desktop, the task bar displays, at least, the followin
- **A notification area** with more or less information, depending on the desktop, intended to display messages coming from your applications (new email, network connection ...)
- **An action button** to quit the working session, to suspend, stop or restart your computer. Depending on your configuration you might switch user, with this button, and take advantage of the multi-user mode of the Debian GNU/Linux systems.
Like almost all the elements of the GNU/Linux desktops, the task bar can be configured and embellished by plug-in (little specialized modules) or simply removed !
Like almost all the elements of the GNU/Linux desktops, the task bar can be configured and embellished by plug-in (little specialized modules) or simply removed ![](img/wink.png) !
A right-click on the "panel " opens a drop down menu allowing you to change its configuration (except for the Gnome-3 desktop). Hereafter an example of configuration for the Xfce panel:
......@@ -118,7 +118,7 @@ An alternative solution consists in using use the special [Alt] key on your keyb
To avoid overloading your workspace, the Debian GNU/Linux environments support, since several years, the virtual desktop concept: the elements displayed on your screen lay upon a "desktop". You can have several of them, which means that if you move to another "desktop", it will be empty at first. If you return back to the previous desktop, you will find it in the same state as you left it (with your applications open).
![noob](img/noob-full-modarp.png)
![noob](img/noob-modarp-circle-icon.png)
**... "Several desktops" ... What do you mean exactly ??**
Well, it's like having **several screens** for your computer, lined up **behind each other**, with the capability to change their order at will. You open the Internet navigator full screen on the first virtual desktop, then you feel like having a look at your latest family pictures. So you **go to the next desktop** which happens to be empty, and you can then display there your pictures also in full screen mode, and return back to the first desktop and enjoy the full real estate for the comfort of your navigation.
It is also a nice mean to get **organized with your tasks**: the first desktop is reserved for the Internet applications, the second for the multimedia, the third for the office work and so on, allowing you to leave open your work in progress, for future modifications, without impacting the other activities.
......@@ -138,7 +138,7 @@ Each environment has its own way to represent the virtual desktops:
All your data, your videos, your documents, your pictures, are regarded by Debian GNU/Linux as files, and these files are organized into folders.
Debian is an operating system (the big piece of software making your computer functional) which organizes the data according to their respective addresses, that is the path to follow, in order to access them, from the general starting point (the system root identified by the "/" symbol).
![noob](img/noob-full-modarp.png)
![noob](img/noob-modarp-circle-icon.png)
**... the picture of grandma is a "file" having an "address" relative to a "root" ???**
Imagine your computer is like your house. If your favorite book is located in a certain place, this "place" is like an address relative to the "house". For example, if the book stands in the second drawer of your nightstand, one can define its address (the path to follow in order to reach it) like this: Home,bedroom,nightstand,2nd drawer,favorite book.
To separate the various "items" we use the "/" symbol, which gives the following address in computer language: /home/bedroom/nightstand/2nd drawer/favorite book.
......@@ -224,7 +224,7 @@ You are going to say:
> *I can do whatever I want with my own data*
... and **you are damn right** !
... and **you are damn right** ![](img/big_smile.png) !
However some applications will access your data more easily if they are stored in their specific folders. Thus, the screen capture program will record its shots in the "Pictures" folder, the Internet navigator will record your downloaded files in the "Downloads" folder, the music player will look into the "Music" folder ... And so on.
**Thunar** allows you to create shortcuts to ease the access, the classification and thus the retrieving of your data.
......@@ -297,7 +297,7 @@ When you launch an application from the menu, or when you move a file from a fol
These instructions can also be sent directly, without going trough a menu or launching an application, thanks to the **Terminal** which gives you access to **the command line**. This tool is more accurate than the graphical interface because it let you use all the options available in your application. It is also your last resort when the graphical session is gone.
The only concern is that this little black box, full of strange signs, is somewhat frightening … But we are going to demystify all this and show you that the terminal can become your new friend.
The only concern is that this little black box, full of strange signs, is somewhat frightening … But we are going to demystify all this and show you that the terminal can become your new friend ![](img/smile.png).
In case of doubts, don't hesitate to ask your questions on the support and help forums (chap.1.2).
......
This diff is collapsed.
# Installing Debian
About time to take the plunge ...
# ![install](img/install.png) Installing Debian
About time to take the plunge ...
![](img/avatar-handy25-by_peha-ccbysa.png)
The following section describe the classical **Single-boot installation**: Debian will be the only distribution residing on your hard disk and the install process will be automatic (assisted partitioning, with the whole Debian system in a single partition).
![noob](img/noob-modarp-circle-icon.png)
......@@ -274,7 +274,7 @@ Internet is full of tutorials about installing VirtualBox. I leave you to consul
- WikiHow documentation: [http://www.wikihow.com/Install-VirtualBox](http://www.wikihow.com/Install-VirtualBox) (cc-by-nc-sa)
- The official VirtualBox documentation in PDF: [http://download.virtualbox.org/virtualbox/5.1.18/UserManual.pdf](http://download.virtualbox.org/virtualbox/5.1.18/UserManual.pdf)
![noob](img/noob-full-modarp.png)
![noob](img/noob-modarp-circle-icon.png)
**... We enter the virtual world here??**
Kind'of'. The virtualization software makes it possible to test or install **a system in a system**, and to ensure the independence of the two installations. VirtualBox will "make believe" the system you want to test (referred to as "*guest system*") that it is all alone on its computer, while ensuring exchanges (shared folder, network connection sharing, etc.) With the *host system*.
Your guest system will be installed on a "virtual disk", which will simply be like a big archive in a folder of your documents.
......@@ -282,7 +282,6 @@ Note that this test method does not verify hardware compatibility and is only fo
## Installation simple boot
![](img/avatar-handy25-by_peha-ccbysa.png)
Here comes the long-awaited moment, the actual installation of the Debian GNU/Linux system on your machine … Are you ready to begin the exciting journey?
Hereafter a visual step by step explanation on how to easily install Debian, using the graphical installer. **This method erases the whole disk** and installs Debian as the unique operating system on your machine. The ISO image is of the type "netinst".
......@@ -358,7 +357,7 @@ Like for the administrator account, you need to enter the password twice for con
### Selecting the guided or manual partitioning scheme
![noob](img/noob-full-modarp.png)
![noob](img/noob-modarp-circle-icon.png)
**... "Partitioning" ... What's that ?**
The partitioning process consists in organizing different partitions on your system.
Partitions are non-overlapping area defined on your hard disk(s), each one of them having its specific properties (file system type, unique identifier, size, etc.). Inorder to function correctly, Debian GNU/Linux needs at least one partition to install the operating system. An additional exchange partition (called SWAP) is highly recommended, to deal not only with insufficient memory space, but also with the suspend or hibernation functionality.
......@@ -398,7 +397,7 @@ Optional: Had you opted for a Debian CD set including all the packages needed fo
### Selecting the network mirror country
![noob](img/noob-full-modarp.png)
![noob](img/noob-modarp-circle-icon.png)
**... where should I put this mirror ?**
**"A repository mirror"** is a computer server, available on-line, hosting the full set of the Debian packages. If you don't have all the CDs on hand, Debian will grab the software or the packages you need on the network mirror servers.
There are repository servers all around the world, each one being the exact copy (mirror) of the others. In this example we select "Yes" and in the following section we will pick an Internet mirror located in the United Kingdom.
......
# Fast boot after installation
# ![démarrage](img/launch.png) Fast boot after installation
First things to do after installation: Wi-fi network connection, screen resolution, printer configuration ... everything you'll need to make your workstation operational.
......@@ -224,7 +224,7 @@ In both cases, the administrator password is requested. Once connected as "root"
apt update && apt dist-upgrade
![noob](img/noob-full-modarp.png)
![noob](img/noob-modarp-circle-icon.png)
**... wait a minute, what does that mean exactly ?**
- "apt": the command to invoke Debian package manager ;
......@@ -264,9 +264,8 @@ If you do not have an e-mail account, or you want to create a new e-mail account
If you are using a **local e-mail client**, a dedicated software, Debian offers severals tools but all working on the same model: Gnome uses "Evolution", KDE includes "KMail" and Xfce integrates **Thunderbird**.
### Thunderbird: your free mail client
### Thunderbird: your free mail client ![thundernird](img/thunderbird-mini.png)
![thundernird](img/thunderbird-logo.png)
**Thunderbird** ([https://www.mozilla.org/fr/thunderbird/](https://www.mozilla.org/fr/thunderbird/)) is primarily an **emailer**, but it is also a communication hub that allows you to read and write within newsgroups, chat with others (discussion group), and read RSS feeds provided by some websites.
If you have two or more email accounts, it might not be very practical to access each of them using the browser! Thunderbird is an application that brings together all the mail boxes of all your email accounts, in one single convenient interface.
......@@ -319,7 +318,7 @@ It is advisable to visit the Preferences setting window, where you can define th
#### Protect your new and forwarded e-mails
![noob](img/noob-full-modarp.png)
![noob](img/noob-modarp-circle-icon.png)
**... Encrypt your e-mails ... what does that mean?**
Let us take the example of the regular mail, sent via post-mail. You send a postcard to your mother-in-law for example, you know that what is written on it can be read by the postman or anyone else. Well, with your e-mails, it's exactly like the postcard,if you do not encrypt them.
......@@ -417,7 +416,7 @@ The browser connects to the web server hosting the target resource. The communic
- If the resource is an HTML page, a compatible video file, or a PDF file, the browser display a page.
- If the resource is unknown or not handled by the browser, the choice is yours: download or open the resource with an external application.
### Firefox: a free web browser
### Firefox: a free web browser ![firefox](img/firefox-mini.png)
**Firefox** ([https://www.mozilla.org/en-US/firefox/desktop/](https://www.mozilla.org/en-US/firefox/desktop/)) is an open and free web browser, developed and distributed by the **Mozilla Foundation** ([https://www.mozilla.org](https://www.mozilla.org)) with the help of thousands of volunteers using the free software/open source development methodology (dixit [wikipédia](https://wikipedia.org/wiki/Mozilla_Firefox)).
......@@ -565,7 +564,7 @@ At first launch, Gimp displays 3 windows with several elements:
By default, the first tab displays the active layers in the image.
![noob](img/noob-full-modarp.png)
![noob](img/noob-modarp-circle-icon.png)
**... What does those "layers" exactly means??**
**Gimp uses the principle of layers**, ie the superimposition of images for a final rendering. It is the same principle as recording a piece of music: the instruments are all recorded on separate "audio tracks", the voices also, then "mixed" all together to obtain the final piece of music.
For the layers of Gimp, it is the same: you separate the different elements on layers and the final image will be exported in the format of your choice (JPEG, PNG ...).
......
# Tweaking of your environment
# ![config](img/config.png) Tweaking of your environment
Do you feel you took control of your system ? Now we are going to tweak the configuration of your workstation.
......@@ -214,7 +214,7 @@ To update your flash player, retrieve the latest version in the same way, and ov
The Debian GNU/Linux system includes free drivers and some firmware in order to operate the integrated graphical functions (chipsets) of the motherboard or the external graphical card.
![noob](img/noob-full-modarp.png)
![noob](img/noob-modarp-circle-icon.png)
**... I need a driver to manage the card of my mother ??**
Your computer is designed around its "motherboard", a plastic board on which the various elements of the processor (the central compute unit) are fixed, as well as the chipsets, the graphical component being part of them (the graphical display computer, to make a long story short).
In order to send the right instructions to these elements the GNU/Linux kernel (the program managing the
......
# System administration
# ![admin](img/admin.png) System administration
## The software sources
......@@ -19,7 +19,7 @@ Details concerning the various information found in the 'sources.list' file (the
- "stretch", "stretch/updates": the branch in the repository tree
- "main": the repository section.
![noob](img/noob-full-modarp.png)
![noob](img/noob-modarp-circle-icon.png)
**... why "stretch" and not "stable" since the system is based on Debian Stable ??**
"**stretch**" is the precise version name of the installed system. It sets a given version of each packages included in the "stretch" repository (the version of the generic kernel, for example).
"**stable**" is the generic name of the *currently* stable.
......@@ -130,7 +130,7 @@ The Apt program is currently going through some streamlining and offers now a si
Debian offers also some special repositories called **backports**, which contain **more recent versions** of some applications. These repositories are not activated by default, but do not present any particular risks for your system: **the "regular" repositories have the highest priority during the update process**, only the applications installed from the backports will look into these specific repositories.
![noob](img/noob-full-modarp.png)
![noob](img/noob-modarp-circle-icon.png)
**... what do you mean exactly by "backports" ?**
Nothing to do, in fact, with the "backdoors" used to spy on your machine running proprietary systems...
The **backport** is a mechanism allowing an application currently hold in the Debian development repositories, to be *ported back* to the "stable" version.
......@@ -466,7 +466,7 @@ This folder will be created again, the next time the system needs to store a new
Debian GNU/Linux uses the package repository system to better manage the software and increase the security of your system. But it may happen that you need an external package of the ".deb" format.
![noob](img/noob-full-modarp.png)
![noob](img/noob-modarp-circle-icon.png)
**... but who is this "deb" ??**
**deb** is the short for "debian", the mother company. To distribute its software, Debian uses a specific archive file format: ".deb". It is a compressed format, like the ".zip" that you use to save your data. These ".deb" archives are recognized by the different Debian package managers (APT and its graphical interface Synaptic) and thus can be handled more easily.
......@@ -512,15 +512,17 @@ The **Oldstable distribution** is the previous stable version. It is usually sup
The **Testing distribution** is the future Stable version. It is used to prepared the next stable version. When everything is OK, when all the bit and pieces are functioning well together, when all the features targeted by the Debian teams are included, and after a period of software freeze and bug hunting, then the Testing version becomes the official new Stable distribution.
The ***Unstable distribution**, *nicknamed Sid* is the version which receives all the new packages versions, and sits at the cutting edge of innovation, but is not very stable: it's a research lab. Nevertheless some brave adventurers use it on a daily basis.
The **Unstable distribution**, *nicknamed Sid* is the version which receives all the new packages versions, and sits at the cutting edge of innovation, but is not very stable: it's a research lab. Nevertheless some brave adventurers use it on a daily basis.
The **Experimental distribution** is not a Debian distribution *per se*, but rather a repository where alpha or beta software versions are tested.
![Toy Story © Disney & Pixar](img/toystory.jpg)
All these distributions are given a name picked among the characters of the Toy Story ® cartoon. Currently, the name of the **stable version is Stretch**, the name of the **testing version is Buster**, the name of the **oldstable version is Jessie**, the Experimental as no nickname.
![sid](img/sid.jpg)
The name of **unstable is Sid**, but who is this Sid guy?
Sid is the little boy, in the Toy story® cartoon, who breaks all his toys ([http://pixar.wikia.com/wiki/Sid_Phillips](http://pixar.wikia.com/wiki/Sid_Phillips)).
Sid is the little boy, in the Toy story® cartoon, who breaks all his toys ([http://pixar.wikia.com/wiki/Sid_Phillips](http://pixar.wikia.com/wiki/Sid_Phillips)).
![sid](img/sid.jpg)
More detailed information on the dedicated Debian Wiki [https://wiki.debian.org/DebianUnstable](https://wiki.debian.org/DebianUnstable).
# Back up your data
# ![backup](img/anx.png) Back up your data
No matter where your expertize level is, or the current state of your hardware, nobody is immune to a bad cockpit error, a technical failure, a heavy thunderstorm, a cup of tea/coffee spilt on the keyboard, or the cat messing around with the central unit ...
......
# Protect your data and your privacy
# ![privacy](img/lock.png) Protect your data and your privacy
The news are crystal clear: is being wire-tapped. It is not to alarm or frighten you, but you have to realize that the "Internet" is not your private living room, and that each picture or text used on the web is potentially recoverable.
......@@ -29,7 +29,7 @@ The **security updates** should not be considered as optional ones: you must ins
Each year, tens of thousands of email accounts, Wi-fi access codes, phone PIN ... are easily cracked, because users picked passwords too easy to guess. The top worst password for the year 2013 was "**123456**", but there are other crazy sequences like "**QWERTYUIOP**", "**0000**", animal names, birthdays ...
** All these passwords, too easy to guess, must be avoided !**
![no](img/cancel.png) **All these passwords, too easy to guess, must be avoided !** ![no](img/cancel.png)
And, by the way, putting together two weak passwords, does not create a strong one ! "Independance1783" might be difficult to guess for a human being, but a "computer robot" will decipher it in the blink of an eye.
......@@ -37,10 +37,11 @@ To **increase the robustness of your password**, in other words to increase its
There are simple tolls which allow you to keep and organize your passwords like KeePassX ([https://www.keepassx.org/](https://www.keepassx.org/)).
![noob](img/noob-full-modarp.png)
![noob](img/noob-modarp-circle-icon.png)
**The stronger my password is, the more difficult to memorize it. Isn't it ?**
You can use a **"pass-phrase**. Here we are talking about a long sentence, difficult to uncover, but easy to remember: few words put together produce a meaningless string, but which has a well defined sense for youself.
For example, the sentance "grandma loves French pickles in her soup", can easily becomes a robust password: "GrandmaLovesFrenchPicklesInHerSoup" ... especially if one replaces few vowels by numbers ("i" by "1", "e" by "3" and o by "0"): "GrandmaL0v3sFr3nchP1ckl3sInH3rS0up".
For example, the sentance "grandma loves French pickles in her soup", can easily becomes a robust password: "GrandmaLovesFrenchPicklesInHerSoup" ... especially if one replaces few vowels by numbers ("i" by "1", "e" by "3" and o by "0"):
"**GrandmaL0v3sFr3nchP1ckl3sInH3rS0up**".
## Protect your data
......@@ -76,13 +77,13 @@ More information on the DebianHelp site [http://www.debianhelp.co.uk/clamav.htm]
Yes, one can find everything on Internet: the best and the worst, and often inappropriate images and contents for our children. In order to let them enjoy safely the digital world, you can use different parental control systems.
**However, keep in mind that YOU are the best parental control !**
**However, keep in mind that YOU are the best parental control !** ![](img/chevalier.gif)
### From your ISP
The Internet Service Providers usually propose different parental control software. This method allows you to control all the devices on your home network, but does not exempt you to activate the parental control on your Web Browser.
More information on the site https://www.internetmatters.org/parental-controls/interactive-guide/
More information on the site [https://www.internetmatters.org/parental-controls/interactive-guide/](https://www.internetmatters.org/parental-controls/interactive-guide/)
### From your computer