Commit 8a652469 authored by nathUTM's avatar nathUTM
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session2 added

parent 888913a2
......@@ -1001,6 +1001,8 @@ An example of triples
\begin{frame}{Do we have enough semantics with RDF?}
\begin{figure}
\begin{center}
\includegraphics[width=0.6\textwidth]{figures/prefixRDF.png}\\
\includegraphics[width=0.8\textwidth]{figures/rdfinf.png}
\end{center}
\end{figure}
......@@ -1020,28 +1022,26 @@ An example of triples
\end{center}
\end{figure}
\begin{itemize}
\item A machine needs a knowledge to "understand descriptions"
\item A machine needs knowledge to "understand descriptions"
\item Common vocabularies also called ontologies are knowledge representations !!
\end{itemize}
\end{frame}
\part{Ontologies, at the core of the Semantic Web}
\section{What are ontologies?}
\subsection{Ontologies, at the core of the Semantic Web}
\begin{frame}{What are ontologies?}
\setcounter{tocdepth}{1}
\tableofcontents
\end{frame}
\begin{frame}{What is an ontology (with the hands) ?}
\begin{block}{}
An ontology is a \textbf{vocabulary} allowing the \textbf{description} and the \textbf{undersatanding} of \textbf{data} and \textbf{information} by representing and making available \textbf{knowledge}.
\end{block}
\begin{block}{}
In the Semantic Web view, ontologies play a key role. They act as \textbf{shared vocabularies} to be used for semantically annotating Web resources and they allow to perform deductive reasoning for \textbf{making explicit knowledge} that is implicitly contained within them.
\end{block}
\begin{block}{}
Ontologies are \textbf{equipped with deductive reasoning capabilities} allowing to make explicit implicit knowledge that are in annotated (semantic described) resources
\end{block}
\begin{frame}{Describing resources with RDF?}
\includegraphics[width=0.8\textwidth]{figures/rappelRDF.png}
\end{frame}
\begin{frame}{What is an ontology (for real) ?}
\only<1>{
\begin{block}{Academic definition}
......@@ -1075,7 +1075,29 @@ Ontologies are \textbf{equipped with deductive reasoning capabilities} allowing
``An ontology is a formal, explicit specification of a \textbf{shared} conceptualisation'' \cite{studer_knowledge_1998}
\end{block}
}
\end{frame}
\begin{frame}{What is an ontology (concretely) ?}
\only<1>{
\begin{block}{}
In the Semantic Web view, ontologies play a key role. They act as \textbf{shared vocabularies} to be used for semantically annotating Web resources and they allow to perform deductive reasoning for \textbf{making explicit information} that is implicitly contained within them.
\end{block}
}
\only<2>{
\begin{block}{}
An ontology is a \textbf{vocabulary} allowing the \textbf{description} and the \textbf{undersatanding} of \textbf{data} and \textbf{information} by representing and making available \textbf{knowledge}.
\end{block}
}
\only<3>{
\begin{block}{}
Ontologies are \textbf{equipped with deductive reasoning capabilities} allowing to infer new information and to check the consistency of the information.
\end{block}
}
\end{frame}
\begin{frame}{What is an ontology used for ?}
An ontology is a shared and formalized vocabulary used to describe data or information in order to
\begin{itemize}
......@@ -1083,67 +1105,89 @@ An ontology is a shared and formalized vocabulary used to describe data or infor
\item infer new knowledge (shared knowledge)
\end{itemize}
\begin{figure}
\begin{center}
\includegraphics[width=0.6\textwidth]{figures/maedche.png}
\end{center}
\begin{center}
\includegraphics[width=0.6\textwidth]{figures/maedche.png}
\end{center}
\end{figure}
\end{frame}
\begin{frame}{Illustation}
\only<1>{
\begin{figure}
\centering
\includegraphics[width=\textwidth]{figures/bc1.png}
\end{figure}
}
\only<2>{
\begin{figure}
\centering
\includegraphics[width=\textwidth]{figures/bc2.png}
\end{figure}
}
\only<3>{
\begin{figure}
\centering
\includegraphics[width=\textwidth]{figures/bc3.png}
\end{figure}
}
\only<4>{
\begin{figure}
\centering
\includegraphics[width=\textwidth]{figures/bc4.png}
\end{figure}
}
\end{frame}
\section{What is there in an ontology ?}
\begin{frame}{What is there in an ontology ?}
\begin{block}{Labels}
\begin{itemize}
\item Terms or symbols (fog, nebbia, brouillard, ...)
\begin{itemize}
\item Terms or symbols (fog, nebbia, brouillard, ...)
\end{itemize}
\end{block}
\only<2-4>{
\begin{block}{Classes}
\begin{itemize}
\item Key ideas of the domain, set of objets, state, ... ( City, Location, Sensor...)
\item Concepts or notions (Key ideas of the domain), sets of objets, state, ... ( City, Location, Sensor...)
\end{itemize}
\end{block}
\begin{block}{Relations}
}
\only<3-4>{
\begin{block}{Relations between classes}
\begin{itemize}
\item Hierarchy of classes (City is a Location)
\item Properties (Sensor observes parameter, Observation occurs in Location, ...)
\item Properties (Sensor observes parameter, Observation occurs in Location, Observation has a value)
\end{itemize}
\end{block}
}
\only<4-4>{
\begin{block}{More axioms}
\begin{itemize}
\item Logical statements (A sensor that observes a Temperature is a TemperatureSensor)
\end{itemize}
\end{block}
}
\end{frame}
\begin{frame}{Illustation}
\only<1>{
\begin{figure}
\centering
\includegraphics[width=\textwidth]{figures/websem/principles_technologies/base_connaissances1.png}
\end{figure}
}
\only<2>{
\begin{figure}
\centering
\includegraphics[width=\textwidth]{figures/websem/principles_technologies/base_connaissances2.png}
\end{figure}
}
\only<3>{
\begin{figure}
\centering
\includegraphics[width=\textwidth]{figures/websem/principles_technologies/base_connaissances3.png}
\end{figure}
}
\only<4>{
\begin{figure}
\centering
\includegraphics[width=\textwidth]{figures/websem/principles_technologies/base_connaissances4.png}
\end{figure}
}
\begin{frame}{Different levels of formalization}
\begin{table}[]
\centering
\begin{tabular}{|c|l|c|}
\hline
\textbf{Type} & \multicolumn{1}{c|}{\textbf{Contains}} & \textbf{Language} \\ \hline
Taxonomy & - Hierarchical relations & RDFS \\ \hline
Lightwheigt ontology & \begin{tabular}[c]{@{}l@{}}- Hierarchical relations\\ - Non-taxonomic relations\end{tabular} & RDFS \\ \hline
Heavywheigt ontology & \begin{tabular}[c]{@{}l@{}}- Hierarchical relations\\ - Non-taxonomic relations\\ - Defined Classes, Property characteristics, ...\end{tabular} & OWL \\ \hline
\end{tabular}
\end{table}
\end{frame}
\section{OWL}
\begin{frame}{OWL}
\begin{block}{The OWL language for representing ontologies}
\begin{itemize}
\item a W3C formalism
\item relies on Description Logics (DL)
\item a W3C formalism
\item built upon RDF and RDFS
\item relies on Description Logics (DL)
\end{itemize}
\end{block}
\begin{block}{Two types of axiom in DL}
......@@ -1160,30 +1204,170 @@ An ontology is a shared and formalized vocabulary used to describe data or infor
\end{block}
\end{frame}
\subsection{Reasoning}
\begin{frame}{How is the formalization exploited ?}
\begin{block}{The reasoner}
\begin{frame}{In an OWL ontology: Annotations}
\begin{block}{Anything that has an IRI, i.e. that can be described is a resource}
\end{block}
\begin{block}{Make explicit natural language terms associated to resources}
\begin{itemize}
\item is a program which uses the vocabulary, the logic in which it is represented and the assertions/descriptions made on data to infer new facts.
\item can detect inconsistencies when logical rules are violated.
\item synonyms (rdfs:label), comments (rdfs:comment)
\item eventually tagged with a language
\end{itemize}
\end{block}
\begin{block}{An inference}
\includegraphics[width=0.7\textwidth]{figures/labelsComment.png}
\end{frame}
\begin{frame}{In an OWL ontology: Classes}
\begin{block}{Expressing that a resource is a class}
\begin{itemize}
\item the resource is typed as an owl:Class
\end{itemize}
\end{block}
\begin{block}{Expressing that a child class inherits all assertions made on its mother}
\begin{itemize}
\item a rdfs:subClass predicat links the two resources
\end{itemize}
\end{block}
\includegraphics[width=0.7\textwidth]{figures/class.png}
\end{frame}
\begin{frame}{In an OWL ontology: Properties}
Remember : a RDF triple is composed of \\
\centering
a subject, a predicate, an object
\begin{block}{Expressing the type/class of the subject of a predicate}
\begin{itemize}
\item the predicate is linked to the class by the owl:domain predicate
\end{itemize}
\end{block}
\begin{block}{Expressing the type/class of the object of a predicate}
\begin{itemize}
\item the predicate is linked to the class or to a XML Schema datatype by the owl:range predicate
\end{itemize}
\end{block}
\includegraphics[width=0.5\textwidth]{figures/domRang.png}
\includegraphics[width=0.5\textwidth]{figures/domRang2.png}
\end{frame}
\begin{frame}{In an OWL ontology: Properties}
\begin{block}{Expressing that a predicate inherits from a mother property}
\begin{itemize}
\item the resources are linked by the rdfs:subPropertyOf predicate
\end{itemize}
\end{block}
\begin{block}{Expressing that a predicate links two resources}
\begin{itemize}
\item the predicate is typed as an owl:ObjectProperty
\end{itemize}
\end{block}
\begin{block}{Expressing that a predicate links a resource to a datatype}
\begin{itemize}
\item corresponds to a new fact deduced by the reasoner
\item relies on different characteristics of the used logic
\item the predicate is typed as an owl:DataProperty
\end{itemize}
\end{block}
\end{frame}
\begin{frame}{In an OWL ontology: ObjectProperties}
\includegraphics[width=0.8\textwidth]{figures/ObjectDataSub.png}
\end{frame}
\begin{frame}{In an OWL ontology: DataProperties}
\includegraphics[width=0.8\textwidth]{figures/DataSub.png}
\end{frame}
\begin{frame}{In an OWL ontology: Individuals}
\begin{block}{Individual are real life instances (data) for which a description is given (typed by a class/related to an other resource or to a value) }
\includegraphics[width=0.8\textwidth]{figures/instance.png}
\end{block}
\end{frame}
\begin{frame}{Protégé, the ontology editor}
\centering
\url{https://protege.stanford.edu/}
\includegraphics[width=0.5\textwidth]{figures/websem/protege.jpeg}
\end{frame}
\begin{frame}{Modelling ontologies in Protégé}
\begin{block}{Classes (concepts)}
\begin{figure}
\centering
\includegraphics[width=\textwidth]{figures/websem/exemples/actuator_class.png}
\end{figure}
\end{block}
\end{frame}
\begin{frame}{Modelling ontologies in Protégé}
\begin{block}{Classes usage}
\begin{figure}
\centering
\includegraphics[width=\textwidth]{figures/websem/exemples/actuator_class_usage.png}
\end{figure}
\end{block}
\end{frame}
\begin{frame}{Modelling ontologies in Protégé}
\begin{block}{Properties (relations)}
\begin{figure}
\centering
\includegraphics[width=\textwidth]{figures/websem/exemples/object_property.png}
\end{figure}
\end{block}
\end{frame}
\begin{frame}{Modelling ontologies in Protégé}
\begin{block}{Properties (relations)}
\begin{figure}
\centering
\includegraphics[width=\textwidth]{figures/websem/exemples/data_property.png}
\end{figure}
\end{block}
\end{frame}
\begin{frame}{Populating knowledge bases in Protégé}
\begin{block}{Individuals (data)}
\begin{figure}
\centering
\includegraphics[width=\textwidth]{figures/websem/exemples/sensing_device_individuals.png}
\end{figure}
\end{block}
\end{frame}
\subsection{Reasoning}
\begin{frame}{How is the formalization exploited ?}
\begin{block}{The reasoner}
\begin{itemize}
\item is a program which uses the vocabulary, the logic in which it is represented and the assertions/descriptions made on data to infer new facts.
\item can detect inconsistencies when logical rules are violated.
\end{itemize}
\end{block}
\begin{block}{An inference}
\begin{itemize}
\item corresponds to a new fact deduced by the reasoner
\item relies on different characteristics of the used logic
\end{itemize}
\end{block}
\end{frame}
\begin{frame}{Inference based on properties}
\only<1>
{
\begin{figure}%[htbp]
\begin{center}
\includegraphics[width=1\textwidth]{figures/domain_range_inference_1.png}
\end{center}
\begin{center}
\includegraphics[width=1\textwidth]{figures/domain_range_inference_1.png}
\end{center}
\end{figure}
}
......@@ -1192,9 +1376,9 @@ An ontology is a shared and formalized vocabulary used to describe data or infor
\only<2>
{
\begin{figure}%[htbp]
\begin{center}
\includegraphics[width=1\textwidth]{figures/domain_range_inference_2.png}
\end{center}
\begin{center}
\includegraphics[width=1\textwidth]{figures/domain_range_inference_2.png}
\end{center}
\end{figure}
}
\end{frame}
......@@ -1233,18 +1417,7 @@ An ontology is a shared and formalized vocabulary used to describe data or infor
\end{frame}
\begin{frame}{Different levels of formalization}
\begin{table}[]
\centering
\begin{tabular}{|c|l|c|}
\hline
\textbf{Type} & \multicolumn{1}{c|}{\textbf{Contains}} & \textbf{Language} \\ \hline
Taxonomy & - Hierarchical relations & SKOS \\ \hline
Lightwheigt ontology & \begin{tabular}[c]{@{}l@{}}- Hierarchical relations\\ - Non-taxonomic relations\end{tabular} & RDFS \\ \hline
Heavywheigt ontology & \begin{tabular}[c]{@{}l@{}}- Hierarchical relations\\ - Non-taxonomic relations\\ - Logical axioms\end{tabular} & OWL \\ \hline
\end{tabular}
\end{table}
\end{frame}
\begin{frame}{Different "roles" for ontologies}
\begin{figure}%[htbp]
......@@ -1345,60 +1518,6 @@ An ontology is a shared and formalized vocabulary used to describe data or infor
}
\end{frame}
\begin{frame}{Protégé, the ontology editor}
\centering
\url{https://protege.stanford.edu/}
\includegraphics[width=0.5\textwidth]{figures/websem/protege.jpeg}
\end{frame}
\begin{frame}{Modelling ontologies in Protégé}
\begin{block}{Classes (concepts)}
\begin{figure}
\centering
\includegraphics[width=\textwidth]{figures/websem/exemples/actuator_class.png}
\end{figure}
\end{block}
\end{frame}
\begin{frame}{Modelling ontologies in Protégé}
\begin{block}{Classes usage}
\begin{figure}
\centering
\includegraphics[width=\textwidth]{figures/websem/exemples/actuator_class_usage.png}
\end{figure}
\end{block}
\end{frame}
\begin{frame}{Modelling ontologies in Protégé}
\begin{block}{Properties (relations)}
\begin{figure}
\centering
\includegraphics[width=\textwidth]{figures/websem/exemples/object_property.png}
\end{figure}
\end{block}
\end{frame}
\begin{frame}{Modelling ontologies in Protégé}
\begin{block}{Properties (relations)}
\begin{figure}
\centering
\includegraphics[width=\textwidth]{figures/websem/exemples/data_property.png}
\end{figure}
\end{block}
\end{frame}
\begin{frame}{Populating knowledge bases in Protégé}
\begin{block}{Individuals (data)}
\begin{figure}
\centering
\includegraphics[width=\textwidth]{figures/websem/exemples/sensing_device_individuals.png}
\end{figure}
\end{block}
\end{frame}
%\input{rappels}
......@@ -1467,6 +1586,7 @@ An ontology is a shared and formalized vocabulary used to describe data or infor
%\input{sections/postscriptum}
\bibliographystyle{apalike}
\bibliography{biblio}
......
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,Nathalie,MacBook-Pro-4.local,24.10.2018 23:19,file:///Users/Nathalie/Library/Application%20Support/LibreOffice/4;
\ No newline at end of file
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